1st Year Chemistry Pdf Notes

These notes are written by Professor Tariq Mehmood. He is a lecturer in Kalar Kahar Science  College (KKSC). Kalar Kahar Science College is the famous college in Punjab. Hundreds of Students of Kalar Kahar Science College got Commissioned in Pak forces, hundreds of students of KKSC became successful doctors and also thousands of students became successful Engineers. 

Chapter 1

BASIC CONCEPTS

you will study in this chapter

  • Chemistry
  • Matter
  • Physical Properties
  • Chemical Properties
  • Atom
  • Evidence of an Atom
  • Molecule
  • Relative Atomic Mass
  • Isotopes
  • Determination of Relative Atomic Masses of Isotopes By Dempster Mass Spectrometer
  • Analysis of A Compound i.e. Empirical and Molecular Formulas
  • Measurement of Percentage Composition or Combustion Analysis
  • Avogadro’s Number
  • Stoichiometry
  • Limiting Reactant
  • Actual Yield and Theoretical Yield

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Chapter 2

EXPERIMENTAL TECHNIQUES

you will study in this chapter

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Filtration
  • Crystallization
  • Sublimation
  • Solvent Extraction
  • Chromatography

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Chapter 3

GASES

you will study in this chapter

  • State of Matter
  • Kinetic Molecular Interpretation of States of Matter
  • Gas Laws
  • Boyle’s Law
  • Charle’s Law
  • General Gas Equation OR Combined Gas Law
  • Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure
  • Graham’s Law of Diffusion OR Effusion
  • Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases
  • Kinetic Energy of Gases
  • Explanation of Gas Laws from Kinetic Theory of Gases
  • Avogadro’s Law
  • Liquefaction of Gases OR Critical Phenomenon
  • Non-Ideal Behaviour of Gases
  • Vander Waal’s Equation for Real Gases
  • Plasma State

Click Here to Download Chapter 3

Click Here to Download Chapter 3 Exercise

Chapter 4

LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS

you will study in this chapter

Liquids

  • Molecular Forces in Liquids
  • Factors Affecting the London Forces
  • Example of Structured Hydrocarbons of Alkanes
  • Polarizability
  • Properties of Compounds Containing H-Bonds
  • Anomalous Behaviour of Water OR Survival of Aquatic Life Under Water OR Significance of Low Density of Water
  • Vapour Pressure
  • Boiling Point
  • Vacuum Distillation
  • Energetics of Phase Changes
  • Energy Changes And Intermolecular Attractions OR Comparison of Enthalpy Changes
  • Changes of State And Dynamic Equilibrium
  • Liquid Crystals

Solids

  • General Properties of Solids
  • Properties of Crystalline Solids
  • Crystal Lattice OR Space Lattice
  • Classification of Crystalline Solids ON The Basis of Nature of Bonding
  • Properties Of Ionic Solids
  • Structure of Sodium Chloride
  • Lattice Energy
  • Structure of Diamond
  • Properties of Molecular Solids
  • Structure of Iodine
  • Theories of Metallic Solids or Crystals
  • Properties of Metallic Solids
  • Structure of Metal
  • Development OR Formation of Unit Cells
  • Determination of Avogadro’s Number

Click Here to Download Chapter 4

Click Here to Download Chapter 4 Exercise

Chapter 5

STRUCTURE OF ATOM

you will study in this chapter

  • Atoms And Fundamental Particles
  • Discovery of Electron (Study of electric current through gases at low pressure)
  • Properties of Cathode Rays
  • Experiments On The Nature (properties) of Cathode Rays
  • Determination of e/m Ratio of Cathode Rays
  • Determination of Charge & Mass of Electron By Millikan’s Oil Drop Experiment
  • Positive Rays And Discovery of Proton
  • Properties of Canal Rays
  • Scattering Of α-Particles (Discovery of Nucleus) (Rutherford’s Experiment)
  • Discovery of Neutron ( Chadwick Experiment ) (1932, Noble Prize in 1935)
  • Plank’s Quantum Theory (1900) (Relationship of Energy of Photon with Frequency, Wavelength and Wave Number)
  • Bohr’s Model of An Atom
  • Spectrum
  • Explanation of Hydrogen Spectrum from Bohr’s Theory OR Origin of Hydrogen Spectrum On The Basis of Bohr’s Model
  • Calculation of Wave Numbers of Various Lines of Hydrogen Atom
  • X-Rays and Atomic Number
  • Moseley’s Experiment On X-rays (1913-1914)
  • Wave-Particle Nature of Matter OR Dual Nature of Matter
  • Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle
  • Wave Mechanical Model of The Atom
  • Quantum Numbers
  • Shapes of Orbitals
  • Electronic Distribution OR Electronic Configuration  of Elements
  • Rules for Distribution of Electrons
  • Pauli Exclusion Principle
  • Hund’s Rule

Click Here to Download Chapter 5

Click Here to Download Chapter 5 Exercise

Chapter 6

CHEMICAL BONDING

you will study in this chapter

  • Causes of Chemical Combination OR Bond Formation
  • Energetics OR Energy Changes of Chemical Bond Formation
  • Size of Atoms
  • Interionic distance (R) and its determination by Pauling
  • Ionization Energy OR Ionization Potential
  • Electron Affinity
  • Electronegativity
  • Energy Changes & Electronic Configuration during KCI Formation
  • Covalent Bond (Electron Pair Bond)
  • Effects of Bonding On The Properties of Compounds (Ionic And Covalent)
  • Bond Energy or Bond Enthalpy or Enthalpy of Atomization
  • Modern Theories of Covalent Bond
  • Atomic Orbital Hybridization And Shapes of Molecule
  • Molecular Orbital Theory
  • Molecular Orbital Treatment of Some Homonuclear Diatomic Molecule
  • ParaMagnetism (Why MOT is superior to VBT & VSEPR Theories?)

 Click Here to Download Chapter 6

Click Here to Download Chapter 6 Exercise

Chapter 7

THERMOCHEMISTRY

you will study in this chapter

  • Thermo Chemical Reactions
  • Spontaneous And Non-Spontaneous Processes (Reactions)
  • Internal Energy OR Intrinsic Energy of A Chemical System
  • First Law of Thermodynamics OR Law of Conservation of Energy
  • Measurement of Enthalpy of A Reaction OR (Calorimetry)
  • Laws Of Thermochemistry
  • Hess’s Law of Constant Heat Summation
  • Importance of Hess’s Law or Application of Hess’s Law

Click Here to Download Chapter 7

Click Here to Download Chapter 7 Exercise

Chapter 8

CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM

you will study in this chapter

  • State of Chemical Equilibrium
  • Law of Mass Action OR Goldberg And Waage’s (in 1864)
  • Determination of Equilibrium Constant for Some Important Reactions
  • Relationship Between Different Equilibrium Constants
  • Applications of Equilibrium Constant
  • Quantitative Effect of Change of Volume of Pressure on the Formation of SO3 OR ‘Kc’ expression for the formation of SO3
  • Applications of Chemical Equilibrium in Industry
  • Preparation of Sulphur Trioxide (SO3) OR Manufacture of H2SO4 By Contact Process
  • Hydrogen Ion Concentration OR Ionic Product of Water
  • Ionization Constant of Acids i.e. Ka
  • Ionization Constant of Bases (Kb)
  • Lowry Bronsted Acid-Base Concept OR Relationship Between Ka, Kb, And Kw
  • Common Ion Effect
  • Buffer Solutions OR Buffers
  • Equilibria of Slightly Soluble (Sprangly Soluble)  Ionic Compounds OR Solubility Product

Click Here to Download Chapter 8

Chapter 9

SOLUTIONS

you will study in this chapter

  • Concentration of Solution
  • Raoult’s Law (When a solute is non-volatile and a solvent is volatile)
  • Fraction Distillation of an ideal mixture of two liquids
  • Types of Derivations OR Types of Azeotropic Mixtures
  • Solubility And Solubility Curves
  • Fractional Crystallization
  • Measurement of Boiling Point Elevation by Landsberger’s Method
  • Measurement of Freezing Point Depression by Beckmann’s Method
  • Energetics of Solution OR Heat Solution
  • Energetics of Hydration OR Energy Changes during Hydration
  • Hydrolysis OR Hydrolytic Reactions

Click Here to Download Chapter 9

Chapter 10

ELECTROCHEMISTRY

you will study in this chapter

  • Electrolytic Conduction OR Metallic Conduction
  • Electrode Potential OR Standard Electrode Potential
  • Measurement of Electrode Potential OR Construction And Working of Standard Hydrogen Electrode (S.H.E) OR Reference Electrode
  • Electrochemical Series
  • Modern Batteries
  • Oxidation Number
  • Balancing of Redox Equation By Oxidation Number Method
  • Balancing of Redox Equation By Ion-Electron Method

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Chapter 11

REACTION KINETICS

you will study in this chapter

  • Reaction Kinetics OR Chemical Kinetics
  • Rate Law And Rate Constant OR Velocity Constant
  • Types of Reaction On The Basis of Order
  • Half-Life Period OR Half-Life
  • Rate Determination Step And Rate Limiting Step
  • Determination of The Rate of Chemical Reaction
  • Factors Affecting The Rate of A Reaction
  • Energy of Activation And Activated Complex
  • Catalysis
  • Characteristics of A Catalyst OR Criteria of Catalysis
  • Enzyme Catalysis
  • Characteristics of Enzyme Catalysis OR Role of Enzyme Catalysis

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